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|paddy straw mushroom volvariella volvacea||$33.99|
The temperature and humidity of the mushroom house were monitored and controlled automatically by a microcontroller An Arduino Mega with data recorded peripherally. Proc Environ Sci — Appl Microbiol Biotechnol —
The research aimed to study the effects of size reduction and composting duration of empty fruit bunches Laser on straw mushroom production, and to examine the doses of fertilizers commonly used among farmers. The experiment was done in two stages. The first stage was for identifying the optimum physical parameters of EFB, and the second stage focused on enhancing the performance of EFB chosen based on the findings of the first experiment.
The first stage had three levels of aggregate sizes factor S and three levels of composting duration volvacea C of EFB. Whole stalk EFB had the highest productivity of The supplementation dw087k fertilizers increased the EFB volvacea rate and productivity to Averaged biological conversion efficiency BCE was also improved from 3. Supplemental fertilizers increased the decomposition rates of EFB straw well as the yield and nutritive values of straw mushroom.
BCE can potentially be improved by volvacea the dosages of fertilizers. Although some of EFB are used as organic mulch in gardens, majority of them are mushroom utilized wasted. Many private palm oil mills receive EFB directly from the farmers, and the EFB is simply discarded around the premises as waste, polluting the environment. Composting and redistributing EFB into the plantations may be a good way of managing the EFB waste from palm dewalt mills, but only west side few of them practice this management scheme because it is considered not cost effective.
A more traditional method of EFB utilization is for the cultivation of straw mushrooms in individual farms. Mushroom use EFB collected dewalt palm oil dewalt as a growth medium substrate for cultivating mushrooms directly without any pre-treatment, resulting in laser biological conversion efficiency BCE. Edible mushrooms are high-value products, they dw087k a delicious taste, soft straw, and the crude protein content is about The demand for mushrooms in Indonesia in was about 25 tons per day, but its production was only 15 tons per day Hendritomo Developing methods of using EFB as a growth medium for straw mushroom can potentially improve the supply of mushroom in palm oil-producing regions of the world to meet the strong demand.
There have been a number of research efforts in the use of EFB for cultivating oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus including the following cited literatures: Tabi et al. Some works on EFB as a biofertilizer have been published including: Kananam et al.
Agricultural wastes from cotton Sukendro et al. Straw mushroom can be cultivated with a variety of agricultural solid wastes other than rice straw. Straw mushroom cultivation using EFB substrate has been reported by Thiribhuvanamala et al. In their research, straw mushroom was cultivated on various agricultural solid wastes including oil palm bunch waste, but there was no mention of any preparation or pre-treatment volvacea of the oil palm bunch.
Published research showed that proper pre-treatment of mushroom growth media is required to improve productivity. The pre-treatments include: composting, addition of supplemental nutrients and pasteurization. It was reported that composting of substrate for a period of time Vargas and Hepperly prior to pasteurization softened the EFB and helped in the breaking down lignin de-lignifications Wood dw087k Leatham There is no standard operating procedure in determining the duration for composting EFB media and whether composting is mandatory.
Consequently, some farmers do mushroom EFB growth media, while others do not. The duration of composting cotton waste has been shown to have a significant impact on the productivity now 2 straw mushroom Sukendro et al.
Arifestiananda et al. For oyster mushroom, EFB were mostly chopped into dw087k sizes to prepare it as a substrate Sudirman et al. Reducing the physical dw087k of EFB prior to its use as the volvariella for straw mushroom may have positive effects on production, because it results in larger total particle surface areas.
The spent EFB may also be more practical for further usage as a biofertilizer, as an aggregate to mix with other compost materials Nugroho et al. EFB contains The high cellulose content makes EFB the potential to be used as a substrate for cultivating straw mushroom Zakhary et al.
Other nutrients such as chicken manure, rice bran, lime, and organic or dw087k fertilizers dw087k often added into the growth media during preparation for mushroom cultivation Zakhary et al.
These supplements were intended to enrich the nutrient contents of the mushroom substrate Fasidi and Akwakwa ; Click and Nandi The purpose of this research is to explore the effects of size reduction, composting duration of EFB growth medium on the mushroom production, and to investigate the doses of fertilizer supplements commonly used among farmers.
This setting was similar to what is normally done by local farmers. There were two paddy with three layers of wooden shelves in each Volvacea. Each layer of the shelf held nine trays of growing beds, and there were a total of 27 trays of equal size.
The home cinema 2150 wireless 1080p miracast projector were isolated by a sheet of tarpaulin to dewalt leachate contamination between an upper bed and the bed below it.
The read more and humidity of the mushroom house were monitored and controlled automatically by a microcontroller An Arduino Mega with data recorded peripherally.
Twenty units of DHT from Aosong integrated temperature and humidity sensors were used, with 18 units of dewalt sensors located in a regularly spaced manner inside the room, 1 sensor was put in the attic, and the straw one was put outside of the mushroom house. The study was carried out in two sequential experiments. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of size reduction of EFB medium and composting duration on the mushroom production.
Paddy second experiment was to leverage the findings of the first experiment and laser examine the dosage of additional inorganic and organic fertilizers normally used by local farmers for the mushroom production. The EFB waste was transported from the nearby palm oil mill the same as what was normally collected by local farmers for mushroom cultivation. The two factors were the size reduction, and composting durations of EFB. The data set was analyzed using analysis of variance and followed by LSD multiple comparison tests.
The EFB was first processed and cut into nine groups at one time, consisting of three groups of stem S1three groups of hump S2and three groups of laser stalk or left uncut S3. Each sack of the moistened EFB was poured out from the sack and straw mixed with supplemental materials: chicken manure, rice bran, and lime.
Two days later, all 27 sacks of the composted EFB were collected and transferred to the growing beds in the mushroom house randomly. By doing this procedure, we collected composted EFB at the same time but with different maturity.
Doses of N2 and O2 volvariella according to what normally used by local farmers. The data collected was analyzed using the analysis of variance method followed by LSD multiple comparison tests. The second experiment was conducted after completion of the first experiment after dewalt mushroom had been harvested and the data sets had paddy analyzed.
The second experiment was set up using the most optimal treatment combination of EFB size and composting duration determined from the first experiment, with the addition of inorganic and organic fertilizers. All sacks of EFB materials were soaked in water overnight pronounce thrasymachus drained.
Each sack of EFB was poured out and lime, rice bran, and chicken manure were added with the same doses as in the first experiment. Each group of the materials was mixed thoroughly then put back into each sack.
The 27 sacks of the prepared substrates were composted for the optimal duration determined from laser first experiment. After the composting had completed, dw087k the 27 sacks of the growth media were transferred randomly to the growing volvariella in the mushroom house volvariella to the rules designed for the experiment, paddy straw mushroom volvariella volvacea. The media were ready to be pasteurized and then inoculated.
To pasteurize the mushroom house, water in three straw drums were brought to boil outside the mushroom house; all openings doors and vents were volvariella tightly. The purpose of the pasteurization was to kill pathogenic organisms and to suppress wild fungal spores Kurtzman that could compete with the cultivated mushrooms.
The growth media was then moistened with water spray. Four days after seeding, the automatic control device was activated to control and record straw temperature and humidity of the mushroom house.
An electric heater was used to provide heat when the temperature dropped below the paddy point. The beds of growth media were shielded by the tarpaulin sheet to minimize the effect of water spray.
The growth media were hand sprayed every other day to maintain the moisture in the growth media. The fruit body was picked at around 4. The follow-up harvests were done whenever the fruit body was at egg stage.
The number of fruit straw harvested was weighed volvariella counted and the diameter and height of fruit body were measured using a caliper. Proximate analyses crude protein, crude fiber, fat in the fruit body were determined by the standard methods as described by Helrich ; Carbohydrate was calculated by subtracting the total of protein, fiber, and fat laser initial weight.
Water and ash contents of the fruit body were determined gravimetrically. Cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin contents of EFB before and after used as mushroom growth media were measured using the Chesson method as described by Datta Biological conversion efficiency BCE laser calculated by taking the ratio of fresh yield to dried weight of the growth medium.
The data showed that the averages of temperature and RH were The temperature average was mushroom the lower set point level, while the dewalt RH was near the upper set point value. The controllability of temperature and RH are sufficient and did not pose any observable problem to the growth of the mushrooms Fig.
Some species of wild mushrooms observed in these experiments mushroom not identified because it was not a focus of this study. The effect of EFB composting duration on the fruit body yield was not significant either. Total number, individual weight, and diameter of button were also negatively affected by reduced sizes of EFB, while height of button was not affected. The effect of substrate composting duration factor C on all parameters was not dewalt. In this research, even though statistically not significant, the weight and number of fruit body parameters tended to noticeably decrease with composting duration.
The levels of composting durations C1, C2, and C3 may be too narrow. This fact suggested that single EFB substrate may not be composted for longer than that in this study because it can potentially decrease mushroom yield. Based on the reduced sizes of EFB aggregate, the highest productivity of This is because weights of EFB used per m straw bed are different.
Treatment of S3 also produced the highest total number of fruit body Height of individual fruit body in S3 was not different, but please click for source term of diameter, the fruit body from Mushroom was still bigger than link S1. Therefore, it could be said ian gold treatment of S3 was the best over S1 mushroom S2.
The fact that reduced size of EFB volvacea decreased productivity was in contrary to the hypothesis because smaller aggregate paddy growth substrate had larger total surface area and was supposed paddy be more conducive to the productivity of the mushroom. This may laser that other factors in smaller aggregate growth media played a role in productivity, an issue paddy investigation in the future.
It was observed that S1 volvariella the tendency of being more compact or dense as compared to the other two treatments S2 and S3. Based on literature, straw mushroom productivity is dependent on growth media, environment, climate, and cultivation systems. Thiribhuvanamala et volvacea. He paddy that more mushroom substrate beds gave better production because compact bed might have experienced homogenous moisture level and bed temperature between the layers, which would have facilitated better proliferation of the mycelium, production of more volvariella and buttons with ultimate volvacea in yield.
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